Epidemiological surveillance and environmental hygiene, SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community, urban wastewater control in Cyprus, and water reuse
Ioannis Pantelis Adamopoulos 1 2 3 * , Aikaterini Apostolos Frantzana 2 4 , Niki Fotios Syrou 5 6
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1 Region of Attica, Department of Environmental Hygiene and Public Health Inspection, South Sector of Athens, Athens, GREECE2 Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS3 Research Center of Excellence in Risk & Decision Sciences CERIDES, School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS4 George Papanikolaou General Hospital of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GREECE5 School of Medicine, E.K.P.A. University of Athens, Athens, GREECE6 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, GREECE* Corresponding Author


Background: Nowadays public health faces many challenges. Epidemiological surveillance and environmental hygiene and infection in community from SARS-CoV-2 along with its control in municipal wastewaters and reuse of water are amongst them. Epidemiology and environmental microbiology considers wastewater release of great importance. The purpose of this study is the detection and classification of COVID-19 infection in community wastewater and their removal by efficient functional processes.
Methods and materials: A descriptive review of the published literature over the last 15-years in Greek and English was carried out via Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases with the perspective of creating a research protocol. The study material consists of recent articles on the subject using keywords. Thus, the most effective techniques, wastewater-based epidemiology, and quantitative microbial risk assessment, for virus surveillance in wastewater are further analyzed.
Results and contexts: The process and management of wastewater at a global level, is a high risk and a great challenge due to the huge amount of biomedical waste and wastewater that ends up in wastewater treatment plants. It may be an obstacle to human health, especially in the ongoing pandemic situation that must be evaluated in the operations of the plant in the environment along with the presence of other dangerous pathogenic microbes.
Conclusions: It is vital the relationship between humanity and environment be reconsidered and more sustainable behavioural choices be encouraged. Scientific evidence pinpoints that the onset of new viral pathogens with a high epidemic-pandemic potential is often the result, complex, interactions among animals, individuals, and environment.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Perspective Article

J CONTEMP STUD EPIDEMIOL PUBLIC HEALTH, 2023, Volume 4, Issue 1, Article No: ep23003


Publication date: 08 Feb 2023

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