Background: Since the onset of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), many reports have presented the disease as a respiratory disease, thereby limiting diagnosis to presentations with respiratory symptoms. This review critically analyzes and consolidates published literature describing extrapulmonary features of COVID-19.
Methods: Recently published full-text literature on the extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 was reviewed. The studies reviewed focused on the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous, hematopoietic, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems; and ocular, otorhinolaryngological, and cutaneous symptoms.
Results: A total of 28 original articles were selected and analyzed. The most common extrapulmonary manifestations were acute cardiac injury (7.2-19.7%), arrhythmia (16.7%), and shock (8.7%) in the cardiovascular system; anorexia (83.8%), liver abnormality (14.8-37.2%), diarrhea (3.8-29.3%), abdominal pain (0.4-12.0%), nausea (9.5%), and vomiting (0.8-5.0%) in the gastrointestinal system; acute cerebrovascular disease and loss of consciousness (36.4%) in the nervous system; lymphopenia (40.0%-64.0), leukocytosis (14.3-23.4%), anemia (15.0%), thrombocytopenia (7.0%), elevated D-dimer (42.0%), and prolonged prothrombin time (2.1-6.0%) in the hematopoietic system; and proteinuria (43.9-62.7%), hematuria (26.7%), elevated urea (27.1%) and creatinine (18.6%), and acute kidney injury (3.6-5.1%) in the urinary system. Others include sore throat (28.6%), erythematous rash (15.9%), arthralgia/myalgia (14.8%), widespread urticaria (3.4%), and singular reports of acute myopericarditis, acute lymphocytic myocarditis, meningitis, viral encephalitis, testicular pain, anosmia, and acute conjunctivitis.
Conclusion: COVID-19 affects every organ-system and can cause extrapulmonary symptoms with or without respiratory symptoms. A high index of suspicion is required to help healthcare providers achieve early diagnosis, prompt treatment, and reduce the chances of spreading the disease within the community.